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UKARU: Additional Services and Research Interests

Additional activities

The UK Anaerobe Reference Unit is also actively involved in:

  • Teaching and training in anaerobic microbiology

    The Practical Anaerobic Microbiology (PAM) course has evolved into the Practical and Clinical Microbiology of Anaerobes (P&CMAn)  – book soon as there are only limited spaces! For further details please contact the UKARU

  • Individual and collaborative research projects in anaerobic microbiology
  • Maintenance of a culture collection of anaerobes
    c. 60,000 strains of anaerobic bacteria available with limited meta data for use in commercial studies and product evaluations.
  • Evaluation of new laboratory methods for anaerobic bacteria
    - WGS for C. difficile sequencing and typing (DIGEST)
    - EUCAST disk diffusion


Research and development activities

The UKARU has an active research programme on topics relevant to its core functions with an excellent record of peer-reviewed publications in the field.

UKARU Publications

Bavelaar H, Justesen US, Morris TE, Anderson B, Copsey-Mawer S, Stubhaug TT, Kahlmeter G, Matuschek E. Development of a EUCAST disk diffusion method for the susceptibility testing of rapidly growing anaerobic bacteria using Fastidious Anaerobe Agar (FAA): a development study using Bacteroides species. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Apr 2:S1198-743X(21)00163-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.03.028. Online ahead of print.PMID: 33813129 

Perry MD, White PL, Morris TE. Impact of the introduction of nucleic acid amplification testing on Clostridioides difficile detection and ribotype distribution in Wales. Anaerobe. 2020 Dec 9;67:102313. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2020.102313. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33309680. 
Tiltnes TS, Kehrer M, Hughes H, Morris TE, Justesen US. Ceftriaxone treatment of spondylodiscitis and other serious infections with Cutibacterium acnes. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Oct 1;75(10):3046-3048. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkaa259. PMID: 32591800. 
Toprak NU, Veloo ACM, Urban E, Wybo I, Jean-Pierre H, Morris T, Justesen US, Tripkovic V, Jeverica S, Soyletir G, Nagy E; ESCMID Study Group for Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI)**. Comparing identification of clinically relevant Prevotella species by VITEK MS and MALDI biotyper. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2019 Dec 9;67(1):6-13. doi: 10.1556/030.66.2019.022. PMID: 31813262. 
Eyre DW, Shaw R, Adams H, Cooper T, Crook DW, Griffin RM, Mannion P, Morgan M, Morris T, Perry M, Jones S, Peto TEA, Sutton J, Walker AS, Williams D, Craine N. WGS to determine the extent of Clostridioides difficile transmission in a high incidence setting in North Wales in 2015. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019 Apr 1;74(4):1092-1100. doi: 10.1093/jac/dky523. PMID: 30561656. 
Alexeyev OA, Dekio I, Layton AM, Li H, Hughes H, Morris T, Zouboulis CC, Patrick S. Why we continue to use the name Propionibacterium acnes. Br J Dermatol. 2018 Nov;179(5):1227. doi: 10.1111/bjd.17085. Epub 2018 Sep 19. PMID: 30101491. 
Veloo ACM, Jean-Pierre H, Justesen US, Morris T, Urban E, Wybo I, Kostrzewa M, Friedrich AW, On Behalf Of The Enria Workgroup. An overview of the data obtained during the validation of an optimized MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper database for the identification of anaerobic bacteria. Data Brief. 2018 Apr 23;18:1484-1496. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.070. PMID: 29904651; PMCID: PMC5998164. 
Ulger Toprak N, Alida C M V, Urban E, Wybo I, Justesen US, Jean-Pierre H, Morris T, Akgul O, Kulekci G, Soyletir G, Nagy E; ESCMID Study Group for Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI). Performance of mass spectrometric identification of clinical Prevotella species using the VITEK MS system: A prospective multi-center study. Anaerobe. 2018 Dec;54:205-209. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.05.016. Epub 2018 May 30. PMID: 29880448. 
Ulger Toprak N, Veloo ACM, Urban E, Wybo I, Justesen US, Jean-Pierre H, Morris T, Akgul O, Kulekci G, Soyletir G, Nagy E; ESCMID Study Group for Anaerobic Infections (ESGAI). A multicenter survey of antimicrobial susceptibility of Prevotella species as determined by Etest methodology. Anaerobe. 2018 Aug;52:9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.05.005. Epub 2018 May 17. PMID: 29860038. 
Veloo ACM, Jean-Pierre H, Justesen US, Morris T, Urban E, Wybo I, Kostrzewa M, Friedrich AW; ENRIA workgroup. Validation of MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper database optimized for anaerobic bacteria: The ENRIA project. Anaerobe. 2018 Dec;54:224-230. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2018.03.007. Epub 2018 Mar 12. PMID: 29545163. 
Krutova M, Kinross P, Barbut F, Hajdu A, Wilcox MH, Kuijper EJ; survey contributors. How to: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018 May;24(5):469-475. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.12.008. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PMID: 29274463. 
Knetsch CW, Kumar N, Forster SC, Connor TR, Browne HP, Harmanus C, Sanders IM, Harris SR, Turner L, Morris T, Perry M, Miyajima F, Roberts P, Pirmohamed M, Songer JG, Weese JS, Indra A, Corver J, Rupnik M, Wren BW, Riley TV, Kuijper EJ, Lawley TD. Zoonotic Transfer of Clostridium difficile Harboring Antimicrobial Resistance between Farm Animals and Humans. J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Feb 22;56(3):e01384-17. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01384-17. PMID: 29237792; PMCID: PMC5824051. 
Veloo ACM, Jean-Pierre H, Justesen US, Morris T, Urban E, Wybo I, Shah HN, Friedrich AW; ENRIA workgroup, Morris T, Shah HN, Jean-Pierre H, Justesen US, Nagy E, Urban E, Kostrzewa M, Veloo A, Friedrich AW. A multi-center ring trial for the identification of anaerobic bacteria using MALDI-TOF MS. Anaerobe. 2017 Dec;48:94-97. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2017.07.004. Epub 2017 Aug 7. PMID: 28797803. 
Veloo AC, de Vries ED, Jean-Pierre H, Justesen US, Morris T, Urban E, Wybo I, van Winkelhoff AJ; ENRIA workgroup. The optimization and validation of the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database for the identification of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016 Sep;22(9):793-798. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2016.06.016. Epub 2016 Jul 9. PMID: 27404365. 
Bing AU, Loh SF, Morris T, Hughes H, Dixon JM, Helgason KO. Actinomyces Species Isolated from Breast Infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Oct;53(10):3247-55. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01030-15. Epub 2015 Jul 29. PMID: 26224846; PMCID: PMC4572534. 
Mac Aogáin M, Kilkenny S, Walsh C, Lindsay S, Moloney G, Morris T, Jones S, Rogers TR. Identification of a novel mutation at the primary dimer interface of GyrA conferring fluoroquinolone resistance in Clostridium difficile. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2015 Dec;3(4):295-299. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2015.09.007. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PMID: 27842877. 
Fawley WN, Davies KA, Morris T, Parnell P, Howe R, Wilcox MH; Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) Working Group. Enhanced surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection occurring outside hospital, England, 2011 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2016 Jul 21;21(29). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.29.30295. PMID: 27487436. 
van Dorp SM, Notermans DW, Alblas J, Gastmeier P, Mentula S, Nagy E, Spigaglia P, Ivanova K, Fitzpatrick F, Barbut F, Morris T, Wilcox MH, Kinross P, Suetens C, Kuijper EJ; European Clostridium difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) project on behalf of all participants. Survey of diagnostic and typing capacity for Clostridium difficile infection in Europe, 2011 and 2014. Euro Surveill. 2016 Jul 21;21(29). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.29.30292. PMID: 27469624. 
Tierney D, Copsey SD, Morris T, Perry JD. A new chromogenic medium for isolation of Bacteroides fragilis suitable for screening for strains with antimicrobial resistance. Anaerobe. 2016 Jun;39:168-72. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 Apr 6. PMID: 27060277. 
Haddad N, Morris T, Dhillon R, Gibbon F. Unusual neurological presentation of Fusobacterium necrophorum disease. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Jan 12;2016:bcr2015210710. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-210710. PMID: 26759436; PMCID: PMC4716438. 

Moore K, Hall V, Paull A, Morris T, Brown S, McCulloch D, Richardson MC, Harding KG. Surface bacteriology of venous leg ulcers and healing outcome. J Clin Pathol. 2010 Sep;63(9):830-4. doi: 10.1136/jcp.2010.077032. Epub 2010 Jul 29. PMID: 20671048. 
Brazier JS, Gal M, Hall V, Morris TE. Outbreak of Clostridium histolyticum infections in injecting drug users in England and Scotland. Euro Surveill. 2004 Sep;9(9):15-6. PMID: 15381836. 
Brazier JS, Morris TE, Duerden BI. Heat and acid tolerance of Clostridium novyi Type A spores and their survival prior to preparation of heroin for injection. Anaerobe. 2003 Jun;9(3):141-4. doi: 10.1016/S1075-9964(03)00068-4. PMID: 16887701. 
Brazier JS, Hall V, Morris TE, Gal M, Duerden BI. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci: results of a sentinel study in England and Wales. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003 Aug;52(2):224-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkg316. Epub 2003 Jul 1. PMID: 12837734. 


National surveillance

As the national referral centre for anaerobic bacteria from clinical origins, the UKARU is uniquely placed to monitor national trends concerning these organisms and to react to outbreaks involving the genus Clostridium in particular.